Causality (also referred to as causation) is the relationship between an event (the cause) and a second event, where the second event is understood as a consequence of the first. In common usage, causality is also the relationship between a set of factors (causes) and a phenomenon. Anything that affects an effect is a factor of that effect. A direct factor is a factor that affects an effect directly, that is, without any intervening factors.
American scientists conducted a study that showed that gastroesophageal reflux disease, one of the manifestations of which is heartburn, is associated with a high risk of developing cancer of the larynx and...