Constipation (also known as costiveness or dyschezia) refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass. Constipation is a common cause of painful defecation. Severe constipation includes obstipation (failure to pass stools or gas) and fecal impaction, which can progress to bowel obstruction and become life-threatening. Constipation is a symptom with many causes. These causes are of two types: obstructed defecation and colonic slow transit (or hypomobility).
American scientists conducted a study that showed that gastroesophageal reflux disease, one of the manifestations of which is heartburn, is associated with a high risk of developing cancer of the larynx and...