Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, is an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual. Suffering is the basic element that makes up the negative valence of affective phenomena. Suffering may be qualified as physical or mental. It may come in all degrees of intensity, from mild to intolerable. Factors of duration and frequency of occurrence usually compound that of intensity.
American scientists conducted a study that showed that gastroesophageal reflux disease, one of the manifestations of which is heartburn, is associated with a high risk of developing cancer of the larynx and...